Gateless Majority Logic

Discussion in 'All non-AMD/Intel CPUs' started by KD5ZXG, Feb 13, 2018.

  1. KD5ZXG

    KD5ZXG Limp Gawd

    Mar 24, 2017
    In 1954, Goto Eiichi (Eiichi Goto in English, except he wasn't) developed an oscillating magamp that
    could perform majority vote logic, amplify the winning state, and hold the result for as long as needed
    in one of two possible phase locks. All without transistors or tubes, just ordinary capacitors and slightly
    overdriven inductors. He named this logic device "Parametron".

    Several early Parametron Computers were built. And from the user perspective, they worked just like
    ordinary computers made of gates. NEC put out a brochure for one in English that clearly shows just
    how boringly normal these could be if you never looked under the hood. A few tubes were used for
    convenience to pump the oscillators, but they wern't doing logic with those tubes. An alternator could
    have provided the same pump waveforms for all that mattered.

    Familiar gates like NAND and NOR have dedicated inputs and outputs. Majority logic is also possible
    with gates, but doing so would miss out on several interesting advantages. Majority logic devices were
    usually symmetrical, having I/Os without direction. Logic would pulled forward by a three phase clock
    that powered down selected banks of devices to forget thier stored state and accept new votes. This
    may sound inconvenient, but is powerful important. Because I will show how a programmable array
    of such devices can pull logic forward, backward, or sideways...

    So how do we compute with majority logic? Well, majority only makes sense if we start with an odd
    number of votes, so there will always be an unambiguous winner. You can make a pretty good true
    random number generator by having no inputs. But for normal Boolean logic we need at least three
    votes. The majority of (1,X,Y) gives the same answer as OR. The Majority of (0,X,Y) gives the same
    answer as AND. These devices were usually differential, so that NAND and NOR were as simple as
    reversing the pair of output wires, giving us Minority Logic.

    NAND and NOR are universal gates that can build anything. A minority of three gate replaces both.
    NOR gates and nothing but NOR gates took people to the moon. Parametrons havn't quite gotten
    there yet, though they certainly could have. But looking forward, gated logic is making less sense
    as transistors become impossibly small. Directionless logic may become the easier trick to pull off.
    Majority of three spins or something, way more than one way to skin that cat. Will even show how
    majority logic can be done using only light. Not that light is practical yet, just saying its been done.

    So we got NAND and NOR. Also stores the result like a one bit memory or flipflop. What else can
    it do? The Majority of (X,Y,Z) gives us CARRY. Cool, so we now have an Arithmetic Logic Unit
    that can do a math function or either of two logic functions! Lets complete the ADD function with a
    five way vote of (X,Y,Z,NotCarry,NotCarry). Question: How many gates does that usually take???

    I'll let you google yourselves up to speed on this, while I gather up the promised attachments.
    Last edited: Feb 13, 2018
    drescherjm and Red Falcon like this.
  2. GoldenTiger

    GoldenTiger 3.5GB GTX 970 Slayer

    Dec 2, 2004
    Ummm, is this homework or something?
  3. KD5ZXG

    KD5ZXG Limp Gawd

    Mar 24, 2017
    If you are having to ask, that means its probably on the test.
    Nah, its only if you want to be ready before quantum takes over.

    I don't mean the weird cold stuff with entanglements and qbits.
    None the less: Minds and faces shall be thoroughly melted.
    Last edited: Feb 14, 2018
  4. KD5ZXG

    KD5ZXG Limp Gawd

    Mar 24, 2017
    Lets start off on the right foot by breaking promises.
    I said no gates, but have gone ahead and drawn gates anyhow for clarity.
    We can mess with the flow of gateless logic after we establish some basics.

    This is a full adder in Differential Majority Logic.
    We add up the input bits, and if there's a majority, thats a Carry.
    We add up the input bits, subtract two carries, and that gives us the Sum.

    Two gates vs nine? Might be something to this majority nonsense...
    If doing ripple carry, also consider that Carry has only one gate of delay.


    To be fair:

    With two more NAND, and permit one to have three inputs: Carry delay
    could be improved to 2 gates. That improvement would simply emulate
    three input majority logic using four NANDs and twice as many steps...


    If we disallow five input majority, and had to do it with just three inputs:
    It takes one extra gate, and delay is no worse. I didn't choose to begin
    with that drawing, because it was less obvious how addition happens.
    The drawing on the left below...


    But its all a hella lot simpler than all this, cause we won't be using gates.
    Before I hit you with oscillators, lets try voting with simple flipflops next.
    Then be prepared to throw your comfort zone of a fixed direction of flow
    out the window...
    Last edited: Feb 14, 2018
  5. KD5ZXG

    KD5ZXG Limp Gawd

    Mar 24, 2017
    Take a break from thinking about it too hard. And take a look at two real
    examples of computers built with majority logic, specifically Parametrons...


    Be aware: Brochure below is for a different computer than pictured above.
    But they are similar enough to put the point across. Completely normal
    computers have been built of a logic you might never before have known.

    Attached Files:

    Last edited: Feb 14, 2018
    Red Falcon likes this.
  6. KD5ZXG

    KD5ZXG Limp Gawd

    Mar 24, 2017
    And its not just about the 1950s. Majority logic has been done in pure light.
    Look Ma, no gates!!! Ok, so maybe it has a lid. But no gates, no wires, no
    transistor. Light doesn't seem small or practical yet, but maybe someday.


    At scales so small that transistor gates stop working, majority logic still gets
    the job done. Thats why we might spend a few moments rediscovering it.
    Last edited: Feb 14, 2018
  7. KD5ZXG

    KD5ZXG Limp Gawd

    Mar 24, 2017
    So, here's a simplified drawing of a majority logic flipflop.
    When this device turns on, it will immediately latch to one
    logic state or the other. Inputs can vote upon that decision.

    But once decided, its stuck with that memory forever.
    Further input changes will be ignored. Or at least until a
    CLEAR pulse comes along to cut the power and make
    it forget.


    But what isn't so obvious: The outputs resistively couple to the
    next flipflop exactly like inputs coupled from the flipflop before.
    The damn thing is symmetrical with four identical pairs of I/O!

    What keeps the output from being an input and spoiling the vote?
    I will give that answer shortly, just need to draw a new picture.
    Last edited: Feb 15, 2018
  8. KD5ZXG

    KD5ZXG Limp Gawd

    Mar 24, 2017
    In classic Parametron Computers, three phases of clock were used to move the logic forward.
    Nevermind for now that Parametrons are oscillators and not flipflops...

    Sleeping cells forget, and cast no vote (I/O pairs either disconnect or pull to the same voltage).
    Votes are pulled into an empty cell as it wakes, only clocks can say which direction is forward.
    This shift register would work just as well backward, if the clocks were phased that way...

    Last edited: Feb 16, 2018
  9. KD5ZXG

    KD5ZXG Limp Gawd

    Mar 24, 2017
    For a big mess of wires that go exactly where they need to and nowhere else, three phases suffice.
    Post #5 shows us two perfect examples of partially wire directed flow that used only three phases.
    But might be handy to have more than three phases to pull logic through an array where the wires
    are fixed only to neighboring cells. Each cell would be programmed to sleep on specific phases.

    Because input and output occur on different phases, any cell of this array could have as many as
    four inputs, and on the next phase as many as four outputs. Though all connections drawn here
    are non-inverting, obviously sometimes signals will need to invert. Maybe we could add diagonal
    connections, and let those invert...

    Oscillating Parametrons had a constant reference zero that could be hardwired, or wire-inverted
    to a 1 wherever needed. That method might not be suitable for an array of flipflops on a chip.
    But each cell could be made slightly unbalanced, such that a tie always results in a constant.


    The array could be haxagonal instead of square, no problem. Also nothing stopping us from
    stacking multiple layers and pulling the flow of logic around in 3D. Having at least two layers
    neatly solves the issue of allowing signals to cross each other...

    Might add a few axons, so signals can reach remote places faster than taking Conway's glider.

    We ain't trying for a slow propagating cellular automata using only local dendrites, nor a big
    mess of wires with only axons, but something sensible that leverages the best of both.
    In the end, anything practical will have to be a mix of programmed and prewired flows.
    For programming majority arrays in VHDL, let how it flows be the compiler's problem.
    Last edited: Feb 18, 2018
  10. KD5ZXG

    KD5ZXG Limp Gawd

    Mar 24, 2017
    The magnetic energy stored in an inductor is one half of it's Henry rating times the current flowing through it squared.
    E=0.5*H*A*A. You don't need to memorize that equation...

    If we reduce the Henry parameter while a current is flowing, that current tries to increase. When Henries go down,
    Amps go up. Because energy freewheeling in the inductor's magnetic flux prefers to remain about the same...

    If we build a tuned circuit consisting of a capacitor and variable inductor, its not just gonna start oscillating all by itself.
    But any small voting current in that variable inductor, perhaps even random noise if no vote, can be given a kick by
    periodically reducing Henries. And those currents can build up to a full scale oscillation. Now you have a Parametron.

    The most effective timing is to pull back Henries twice each cycle of oscillation, so that the tuned circuit picks up
    current both coming and going. Eventually amplifiying swing to full scale, and locking onto 1/2 the pump frequency.
    But we could swap going half cycles for coming half cycles, it would amplify and hold that oscillation just as well.

    And that is the difference between a stored one and a stored zero. Could lock onto the odd pump cycles, or the even
    pump cycles. If we listen to the resulting zeros and ones, the same as audio data stored on some early casette tapes.
    Binary Phase Shift Keyed.

    Next post, we cover a way to reduce Henries on demand. And with pics that will hopefully make better sense.
    Some extra confusing side notes first...


    There are other parameters we could twiddle: Variable capacitors can give a boost to Voltage when Farads reduce.
    Same way a condensor microphone works E=0.5*F*V*V. We wouldn't build an oscillator out of mics, that would be
    kinda useless. Variable capacitance across the depletion region of a diode has sometimes been paired with a fixed

    Or the optical table I showed earlier, with a nonlinear piece of glass. Pump it with blue laser, and excite an infrared
    oscillation of half frequency. Don't know the actual color used, just imagining blue. Its called a "Degenerate Optical
    Parametric Oscillator". Degenerate in this case meaning it has only two possible phase relationships. Not exactly
    what degenerate usually means around here.

    Compare the phase of two of these, and you have an excellent true random zero or one, that holds until you turn it
    off and let it forget. Parametrons are excellently balanced to amplify a true random from noise, not like flipflops that
    tip predictably on no-input.
    Last edited: Feb 25, 2018
  11. KD5ZXG

    KD5ZXG Limp Gawd

    Mar 24, 2017
    Julius Sumner Miller, or Scanners? You decide...

  12. KD5ZXG

    KD5ZXG Limp Gawd

    Mar 24, 2017
    Alright, picking up the pieces from where our heads exploded...

    You might note a strange pair of toroidal transformers labeled "Excitation."
    Those two are wired to buck each other and produce no transformer action.
    The puprose is to overdrive (saturate) those donuts and reduce inductance,
    without acting like a transformer. Actually its acting like a magamp.

    Parametron Works.png

    Inputs and outputs can be coupled from the same donut. I dunno why the output on
    the right was directly coupled, except it doesn't matter and saved a few turns of wire.


    Example below I built as a random number generator, without inputs.
    One coupling donut shy of what you read about in the paper above.
    I also ran DC bias on a solid wire, separate from 2f excitation (blue),
    which proved an unecessary feature that didn't make any difference.

    Solder blob on the right is the midpoint where the two donus connect to each other.
    You might expect that to be in the middle of the picture, but I had to work with wires
    that were already glued to the donuts. So they are not mirror image of each other.


    Now, where the gate???? Ain't none, except maybe three for shutting down clock lines.
    A clock line might then be shared by several parametrons of the same timing group.

    But we don't even need gates for clocks. Imagine a pair of mechanical alternators
    spinning at slightly different rates, and evenly mix those outputs. They will reinforce,
    cancel, reinforce, cancel, reinforce, cancel, and create the required clock waveform.

    Reading the output phase was sometimes as simple as a neon bulb wired between
    a known reference zero and an unknown output. If they were enough different, the
    bulb would light. Neon wouldn't light at low voltage and screw up a vote that hadn't
    yet been amplified to full scale. A shift register like that might make a cool clock,
    like the kind you might hang on a wall...
    Last edited: Feb 18, 2018
  13. KD5ZXG

    KD5ZXG Limp Gawd

    Mar 24, 2017
    Majority logic can be built of an amazing variety of things, including gates but not limited to them.
    Once you get your head around it: Majority logic could easily be made of out of water, golfballs,
    light, single electrons, memristors, magnets, quantum dots, tunnel diodes, the list is just endless...

    But not all ways of performing majority logic are inherently differential, nor do all of them provide
    minority logic, or inversion. Except thats not an actual problem, you just have to know the trick.

    If I build two single-ended non-inverting majority gates and operate them in parallel: Such that
    one operates on inputs (X,Y,Z) , while the other operates on inputs (X/,Y/,Z/) , the combination
    provides exactly the same outputs as a differential gate. Which means we can simply swap
    signal wires anytime inversion is needed for free, with no delay. No need for any real inverter.

    I tend to prefer differential for electronic implementation, because the tipping threshold sets
    itself reliably without need for tweaking. Single ended implementaions make more sense as
    one gets smaller, where thresholds become reliable properties of physics. But might need to
    lean on the parallel trick, when no better way of inverting easily presents itself.

    Last edited: Feb 18, 2018
  14. Red Falcon

    Red Falcon [H]ardForum Junkie

    May 7, 2007
    Loving these posts and information.
    I haven't read through everything yet, but hot-damn, this is some great information.

    Thanks a ton for sharing! :D
  15. KD5ZXG

    KD5ZXG Limp Gawd

    Mar 24, 2017
    Parametric amplifiers and oscillators are also useful for receiving weak signals from distant spacecraft. Inductors
    and caps have a lot less noise than transistors. Signals in good phase with 1/2 the reference pump are amplified,
    everything else attenuated. It can really clean things up.

    Only 10 years ago, we might have asked the man himself. Since he's no longer giving lectures, I will put on
    my magic 2f tinfoil hat and attempt to channel some Engelbrecht. Too bad I don't dress quite that sharp.

    Im just assuming, not 100% sure, but those diodes of his were probably reverse biased such that they did
    not conduct. His objective was only to Voltage vary the capacitance parameter and pump-up an AC signal
    as it passed. Possibly two signals (transmit and recieve) simultaneously travelling in opposite directions.
    Not to make noise like a typical forward biased junction, and also why a transistor wouldn't have helped.

    The small signal gain of a parametrically pumped amplifier is exponential. A certain minimum size signal and
    minimum size kick from the pump have to occur together on time to merit a gain greater than 1x. If we have
    enough signal, a pump with compatible timing, and feed output back to the input, we can make an oscillator.

    Small signal gain is exponential, does not mean large signal gain is infinite. If energy of a signal tries to exceed
    that of the pump: Would not be amplified, but would spill backward into the pump, so the system is self-limiting.
    The strength of a vote is amplified to a consistent output level, regardless how many or few inputs voted.

    If we tune slightly off 1/2 pump frequency, small signal gain is reduced. Sometimes useful if you don't want
    random noise or excessively weak vote to automatically build up to an oscillation. Signals that aren't already
    loud enough to merit gain, even if they have close to proper timing, quickly decay to nothing. This can make
    a third quiet logic state, though not exactly an open circuit the same as "tri-state". May not be oscillating yet,
    but connected and listening, even to the outputs. Ready to trip on any loud enough glitch that might be heard.

    This relates to logic if you want a Parametron that self-starts from noise as a true random number generator.
    Need to make sure the pump is strong enough, and very close to 2f in-tune, that even the noise floor merits
    gain 1x or greater. Else your random generator will do nothing but look at you like you stOOpid or something.
    Mine has 10 turns of blue wire pumping at 2f, not cause I originally planned to need that many. Parametrons
    with reasonably strong logic inputs, might only need excitation by one or two turns of the pump to get started.

    Randomness can be improved by using a pair or more in XOR to cancel outside influences that might have
    nudged them in common. 100% sure there was a patent where some dude had done just that with a pair of
    optical Parametrons.

    Too bad I don't dress this sharp either. Just watch where you point that thing...
    Last edited: Feb 26, 2018
  16. KD5ZXG

    KD5ZXG Limp Gawd

    Mar 24, 2017
    Don't quite get what all the extra junctions are for in this adder, unless maybe for doing the parallel trick.
    Perhaps they fudged subtract into the circuit too? Anyways: this is a Quantum Flux Parametron (sadly, no
    Flux Capacitor) made of superconducting Josephson junctions, whatever the hell they are. I'm not gonna
    be digging into this option too much futher, cause it seems to need an absurd amount of cold to work. But
    its an impressive Japanese effort to carry on the work started by Eichii Goto.


    Quantum, but functions not as some weird quantum computer, just a really fast regular computer.
    These things are actually useful in weird quantum computers too, if only for detecting the outputs.
    They also claim low power, like almost none. But I want to see the bill for running that fridge 24x7.

    Whats going on these days with Memristors and Logic-in-Memory should be of much sooner use
    to real people that live & operate at room temperature, or slightly above. Maybe we go there next...
    Last edited: Feb 27, 2018
  17. KD5ZXG

    KD5ZXG Limp Gawd

    Mar 24, 2017
    Well, after way too much reading I still don't understand memristor logic in memory.
    Clear only now: While a Programmable Majority Logic Array still seems possible, the
    memristor people have been working towards something entirely different. An Akers
    logic array. Shamefully, I just don't get it. Maybe that bulb will light for me later...

    So next majority logic: I think might be Esaki Tunnel Diodes arranged in Goto Pairs.
    A quantum logic of the 1960's you probably never head of. Nothing weird going on
    here, unless you consider the topic of "Negative Resistance" to be weird.

    There is no such thing as "Negative Resistance". Ordinary Resistance = Volts / Amps.
    And this plots a straight line with a fixed slope. But a Diode can have a curved slope,
    possibly with dips. All points on that curve will have a positive resistance if looked at
    individually. But a dip midway in a rising curve may present a range of negative slope.
    "Negative Differential Resistance" definitely does exist, and sometimes damn useful.

    Shockly (inventor of the four layer diode, but more famous for stealing credit from his
    assistants who invented the junction transistor) was maybe first with a solid state NDR
    diode. (NDR had been done before with tubes.) But he never tried Majority logic that I
    know of. Shockley's diode was a bit slow, and ate a lot of power. You can kinda fake
    one by hooking up an old metal can 2n2222 the wrong way. It works, just not real well.

    They gave Reona (Leo) Esaki a Nobel prize for his tunnel diode. It was quantum fast,
    and used very little power. So yes, very damn useful. And Goto put them to immediate
    use in pairs as Majority Logic devices, obsoleting his own Parametrons for decades.
    Parametrons did eventually made a quantum comeback, but that was only recently.

    Unfortunately, NDR diodes were not exactly brain dead obvious how to use. And very
    difficult to manufacture with 60's tech to any consistent specification, leading to a mess
    of bins with incompatible thresholds. These days, you will probably only find them in the
    trigger circuit of oscilloscopes, radar guns, and Russian military surplus. Was death by
    unpopular=expensive, not by any technical problem that couldn't be overcome.

    Schematics and pictures next post...
    Last edited: Mar 6, 2018
  18. KD5ZXG

    KD5ZXG Limp Gawd

    Mar 24, 2017
    A normal resistive loadline plotted against an NDR would cross at stable operating points
    just to the left of A, and also just to the right of B. Also somewhere inbetween A & B there
    is a third operating point on the NDR curve that is totally unstable. From here, it will snap
    to either of the stable points at the first opportunity.

    Imagine a loadline drawn from about where this slide sais "Ip" to about where it sais "Vf".
    Nevermind, I edited the picture so you don't have to strain your overworked imaginators.
    Actually, Goto Pair is vs another NDR diode's mirror image curve (flipped left/right). So,
    you can imagine how those curves might cross instead, if you are up for the challenge...


    Voting at quantum speed only helps if you can forget old obsolete votes just as fast.
    Abusing a slow transistor as a *GATE* to interrupt power would defeat the purpose.

    So we need a way to pass and shunt AC power that comes from a gateless oscillator.
    I'm thinking maybe a Magnetron ripped from a microwave oven? Roughly 2.45GHz.

    The patents all seem to leave out the details of how the power clock was distributed.
    I suspect because that problem was never completely solved. I don't think to built as
    oversimplified in my drawing. It probably wouldn't work too well, if at all...


    The second issue, which isn't a problem, is that the results of this vote non-invert.
    So we lean on the parallel trick, with a whole redundant machine dedicated to an
    alternate, quite possibly evil truth. Kirks get swapped whenever inversion needs
    to take place. Instead of Q and Q/, should those outputs have been K and K/ ???

    Back to reality for a second: The Goto Pair still needs explanation. It latches up
    or down, because both NDR diodes refuse to operate on the negative slope of
    any answer inbetween. In the case of Esaki tunnel diodes, that slope is due to
    quantum tunneling across a PN junction. The junction is never driven to the full
    forward bias of a normal PN diode, so we don't have any slow turn-off behavior.

    And a third problem, solved in drawing, but totally forgot to explain till just now.
    Two thresholds fixed by tunnel diodes do not compare across the differential.
    This has only fake differential, so a vote cannot be nulled by pulling a pair up
    or down in common mode. Both must disconnect, or both pull to the middle.
    I chose pull to the middle, perhaps also disconnect by virtue of insufficient bias.

    Clocking this way causes a fourth inconvenience. That it can't and won't hold
    a result forever. Results need to move on before clock transformer saturates.
    A persistent memory bit would then require a loop of three such logic devices.
    Or rely on DC power and a gate to turn off, which brings us back to square #1.

    There is no evidence I've found of a working NDR computer ever constructed.
    Though a huge pile of moldy-old research papers and related patents persist.
    Once was an NDR-Klein computer kit, but the letters were just a coincidence.
    Not same thing as "Negative Differential Resistance" at all...
    Last edited: Mar 7, 2018
  19. Derfnofred

    Derfnofred Limp Gawd

    Dec 11, 2009
    I have only just looked at your ltspice diagrams and plots, but one thing that should be noted is that anything magnetic isn't going to scale to densities that are comparable to present binary logic, even with respective advantages.

    Memristor covers a few different technologies, but essentially programming in a variable resistance.
  20. KD5ZXG

    KD5ZXG Limp Gawd

    Mar 24, 2017
    Spin torque MRAM isn't quite competitive in density yet, but improving...
    Wipes the floor of every other true non-volatile tech for infinte fast writes.

    I got one of their 16MBit parallel bus devices to use as a huge ALU table.
    Enough there to pack every imaginable 8bit vs 8bit operation with plenty
    left over for flags and user space. But that project is a whole other rant...

    The old Parametron donuts weren't non-volatile like CORE or MRAM.
    Soft inductors would forget immediately. Such logic held memory only
    in the phase of an oscillation. A self-refreshing dynamic ram of sorts.
    I'm not suggesting go back to those, except they are fun to play with.

    Was only to illustrate gateless, oscillating, majority logic. That for nearly
    a decade, real computers were successfully made of. Mostly to break
    you free of thinking gates and transistors are the only tools to compute,
    or even essential. I wanted to show you something completely different.

    Also may be "magnetic", but the new Quantum Flux Parametrons
    don't oscillate like ye donuts of old. I don't fully get exactly what a
    Josephson Junction does, or how small they might could be made.
    And I might be wrong, but I imagine its some kinda flipflop of spin?

    Nothing wrong with transistor gates where those devices work best.
    Just don't see them working too well all by themselves when the shit
    gets quantum. Plenty of other options exist along side, that together
    with gates might stretch what is possible in our near future. I'm mostly
    interested how we make a working computer with those other logics.
    Not limited strictly to gated logic we already know too well.

    One other thing bugs me about quantum logic: Why exactly does one
    need cold to make quantum work? My thoughts often return to magnetic
    reconnection events in the Sun. A quantum computer instantly solving
    the incredibly complex problem of finding a lower energy state. Clearly,
    neither small nor cold was ever the requirement.
    Last edited: Mar 14, 2018 at 4:16 AM
  21. Derfnofred

    Derfnofred Limp Gawd

    Dec 11, 2009
    As to the quantum logic portion: we need to cleanly identify shifts in electron energy states at extremely small charge volumes, so any smearing of that due to thermal variations (have a good read on Bose-Einstein statistics–Einstein_statistics), will swamp out the underlying probability function given by the quantum logic.

    And, holy crap, it's been years since I've had to look at Bose-Einstein equations.
  22. KD5ZXG

    KD5ZXG Limp Gawd

    Mar 24, 2017
    You are obviously correct for cold single quanta where half a spin matters, but that sort of
    logic is simply not practical outside of a lab. Practical quantum needs redundancy and error
    correction, and a majority of votes easily offers both. Don't have to count the exact state of
    single electrons per input to leverage quantum effects. Smeared quantum works fine too.
    ie: Tunnel diodes at room temperature.
    Last edited: Mar 15, 2018 at 9:22 PM
  23. KD5ZXG

    KD5ZXG Limp Gawd

    Mar 24, 2017
    This is a spintronic majority logic device. Not yet sure if it works in only one direction like a gate, or any direction
    like a Parametron. I see no intrinsic mechanism whereby the result would be amplified and maintained, so I am
    leaning more toward gate.


    Also couldn't find any specific detail how electrical signals at the SMA connectors are coupling to spins in the waveguide.
    Guessing maybe STNOs (Spin Torque Nano Oscillators).
    Or could be circularly polarized, corner fed patch antennas. But why fed across to the far side of each waveguide branch?

    And here with the ubiquitous pitchfork gun again. Are we seeing an actual circuit component? Or was this a photoshop
    to explain something unseen? I can't tell from what little isn't hiding behind academic paywalls.
    Last edited: Mar 16, 2018 at 8:42 PM
  24. KD5ZXG

    KD5ZXG Limp Gawd

    Mar 24, 2017
    Lets review: There are three primitive uses (MAJ, AND, OR) for a Majority gate. Not counting clubbing baby seals.

    -edit- Image replaced due to an error at bottom left gate, fixed now.

    When we upgrade to Parametrons, we are no longer tied to transistors and gates.
    But now we have to deal with a three phase clock, and this can be a true PITA.
    Sometimes drawn as circles to emphasise no distiction between input and output.
    The smaller circles represent inverted wire pairs.


    Five Input Majority might be considered another case of primitive use. But like seals, it gets messy...

    -edit- On futher consideration: Ideal padding per phase of addition might be Three, Five, Five.
    The drawing stands for now, as only the text was incorrect. I might replace it later.

    Input and outputs want to occur all of one phase. But ripple carry wants to happen on every phase.
    And we don't want to delay ripple. A final answer for ripple Carry requires the most steps to complete.
    Delay almost anything else to achieve alignment with Carry is preferrable.

    Adders that don't ripple are an entire other topic. (I'm into MRAM Lookup Tables and Carry Select.)
    Won't be making any adders of oscillating donuts, except to understand the concept. When nano,
    spin, quantum, whatever bizarro logic beats Morre first, we will be ready to deal with it.
    Last edited: Mar 18, 2018 at 6:02 PM
  25. KD5ZXG

    KD5ZXG Limp Gawd

    Mar 24, 2017
    Forgetting on every third cycle seems wasteful. Here: Thirteen Parametrons were wasted just
    to align the phase of a 3bit, 9Parametron adder. If we could hold-off forgetting till the ADD was
    complete, it might not need so much padding.


    Perhaps a 9 phase clock (forget on every 9th phase) would give us enough hold-time to complete an 8bit
    ADD without an absurd amount of padding? This might still be compatible with a 3 phase clock elsewhere.

    Even a four phase clock (remembering for 2 phases rather than one) would elimate all but three of the
    delay parametrons in the above drawing. Would a five or six phase clock make sense, or just go for 9?
    Last edited: Mar 18, 2018 at 1:36 PM
  26. KD5ZXG

    KD5ZXG Limp Gawd

    Mar 24, 2017
    I find no historical precedent for it, but it looks like a 9phase clock (forget, vote, hold, hold, hold, hold, hold, hold, hold, hold, hold) might work.
    Or does 8bits require 10 phases? Yeah, I prolly screwed it. Only 7 parametron groups would be in a state of hold. Vote phase doesn't present
    a useful output because the next group has to be in forget mode, else it might mistake output for an input.

    So, 10 phases for 8bits, 6 phases for four bits. But I'm not fixin this drawing today....
    I'm saying the parametrons of group2 in this drawing should be forgetting at time the output is read.
    Everything from group3 and to the right should be holding a valid output.
    A new input is forming at group1, unseen to the left of the drawing.


    Did I screw this massively? Look at Group2 "output" C2. That parametron can't vote because Group4 is awake
    and trying to turn that output into an input. Will require an extra forget phase added for every hold phase added.
    9 Phases would yield only four bits in a valid state of (forget, vote, hold, hold, hold, hold, forget, forget, forget).
    Eight of the seventeen input bits, & four of the nine output bits need hold to be stretched by a delay parametron.

    12 wasted parametrons added to 24 that actually compute something isn't bad as it could be. But going to a 17
    or 18 phase phase clock to avoid those wasted components seems like it could slow down a lot of operatings
    that have nothing to do with ripple carried ADD, SUB, or Shift Left Arithmetic.

    One would hope that Programmable Majority Arrays could someday be written in VHDL, just like FPGAs.
    Let all this phasing nonsense be a problem for the compiler. Still, some Japanese dude from the 50's must
    have figured it all out on paper. Except in Japan they didn't even have the "50's", they had the "Showa Jidai".
    Plenty of evidence that Parametron Computers worked with a very reasonable quantity of primitive devices
    and not huge amount of waste. Somehow in only three phases, without even knowing which decade they
    were living in. Go figure...

    -edit- I couldn't stand the above incorrect drawing any longer, but I leave it to show what can go wrong:
    After half a dozen failed attempts, this drawing might even be error free now! Just don't count on it...


    Timing should now be correct for 9 Phases (FFFFVHHHH) Forget, Vote, Hold.
    The pattern will appear backwards if we examine what each group is doing.
    Group 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1
    Phase1 HVFFFFHHHH (Simultaneous valid inputs are assumed to be held by Parametrons of Group1, not shown)
    Phase5 FHHHHVFFFF (Neither inputs or outputs are awake right now, but somewhere in the middle we got this)
    Phase1 HVFFFFHHHH (Valid outputs are now held by Parametrons of Groups 7,8,9,1)
    All Sum bits and the final Carry can be simultaneously readout now.
    If we wait to any longer to read, bits held by Group7 will be forgot.

    Is there any way I could possibly have made that more confusing? I don't think so...

    This phasing might also solve some timing problems of the 5 input Majorty adder.
    If so, could we rip out 8 MAJ3 Parametrons and still arrive at the same answer?

    Nah, one intergroup connection (The X128 input) would then stretch one phase too
    far without adding another holder. What's the point of saving one only to burn one?
    But seven devices could be saved, maybe...

    I don't think anything nano, spin, or quantum does 5input, the savings would be irrelevant.
    If you are building an old fashioned Parametron, or flipflops, 5input probably saves parts.
    Last edited: Mar 18, 2018 at 7:17 PM