Hari Pulapaka of the Windows Kernel Team at Microsoft has explained the evolution of the Windows kernel and how it can scale from an ATM machine to a pre-release Windows DataCenter class machine with 896 cores supporting 1792 logical processors and 2TB of RAM. The discussion starts its focus on Windows refactoring for a DLL, statistics such as how many lines of code are in the kernel, and then transitions to the Windows scheduler and the design principles implemented to scale past 64 logical processors. Windows 10 brought us another innovation in the scheduler space with CPU Sets. CPU Sets allow a process to partition the system such that its process can take over a group of processors and not allow any other process or system to run their threads on those processors. Windows Kernel even steers Interrupts from devices away from the processors that are part of your CPU set. This ensures that even devices cannot target their code on the processors which have been partitioned off by CPU sets for your app or process. Think of this as a low-tech Virtual Machine.