The SATA specification is intended to be forward and backward compatible on both the drives and the controllers. The speed of the interface should be automatically negotiated. In most cases, the jumper was provided because some older SATA 1.5gb/s controllers weren't properly handling drives that also negotiate for 3.0gb/s. If everything works and follows the specification, the jumper isn't necessary.
You may want to search for information about your motherboard's specific SATA controller and see if it is affected by this problem. If not, you should be able to plug in a 3.0gb/s drive and it will just work.
I've run many Sata 300 drives of different brands (Seagate, WD, Samsung) on motherboards (MSI, Biostar, Asrock) that had Sata 150 ports and never experienced any problems I could attribute to the Sata interface. The Seagate's were the only drive that came with a Sata jumper in place, and I ran those drives without the jumper. I've also many drives on PCI cards with Sata 150 ports without any issues.
ymmv, but I'd be very surprised if you'd run into any issues - I think it is so unlikely you'd have issues that I would recommend you don't worry whether or not a given drive has a "Sata 150 mode".