FreeNAS miss-alignment with 4k Drives

Apollo686

Limp Gawd
Joined
Nov 15, 2004
Messages
227
I have FreeNAS 0.7.3 (5543) running on a Q9550 mini ITX system with 4GB of RAM. I previously had 3x WD20EARS drives attached and had good performance over gigabit ethernet. I just bought 3 more WD20EARS drives and destroyed the array to create a new one using graid5. All the drives are the version 3 (667 platters).

The new configuration is 6x WD20EARS with 4 drives off the motherboard and 2 drives off an areca arc-1200 running as passthrough. With the new array I am copying data to the NAS and getting speeds of 10-15 MB/s average over gigabit. I had one transfer that started around 50 MB/s but then went down after a bit and has stayed around 9-12 MB/s.

In FreeNAS I checked Satus| Disks and got:

Disk------Capacity----------Device model------------------------------I/O statistics----------------------------------Temperature---------Status
ad8-------1907730MB------WDC WD20EARS-00MVWB0------111.25 KiB/t, 84 tps, 9.13 MiB/s------41 °C------------------ONLINE
ad10-----1907730MB------WDC WD20EARS-00MVWB0------118.35 KiB/t, 79 tps, 9.12 MiB/s------40 °C------------------ONLINE
ad12-----1907730MB------WDC WD20EARS-00MVWB0------121.10 KiB/t, 77 tps, 9.12 MiB/s------38 °C------------------ONLINE
ad14-----1907730MB------WDC WD20EARS-00MVWB0------121.30 KiB/t, 77 tps, 9.13 MiB/s------40 °C------------------ONLINE
da1-------1907730MB------n/a---------------------------------------------62.28 KiB/t, 150 tps, 9.14 MiB/s------30 °C------------------ONLINE
da2-------1907730MB------n/a---------------------------------------------62.28 KiB/t, 150 tps, 9.13 MiB/s------30 °C------------------ONLINE


9.13 MiB/s seems very low, these drives should be closer to 90 MiB/s. Under diagnostics I noticed that the drives are setup with 63 spt. Could this be causing the slowdown by misaligning the 4k sectors? I was under the impression that without partitions this should not be an issue.

If anyone has thoughts I would greatly appreciate it, and I can provide more information if needed.
 
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Apollo686

Limp Gawd
Joined
Nov 15, 2004
Messages
227
Also, checking performance with dd gives:

dd if=/dev/zero of=/raid5/zerofile.000 bs=1m count=10000
10485760000 bytes transferred in 155.132150 secs (67,592,436 bytes/sec)

dd if=/raid5/zerofile.000 of=/dev/null bs=1m
10485760000 bytes transferred in 127.880278 secs (81,996,694 bytes/sec)

sysctl -a | grep kmem
vm.kmem_size_scale: 2
vm.kmem_size_max: 1342177280
vm.kmem_size_min: 0
vm.kmem_size: 1342177280

sysctl -a | grep raid5
kern.geom.raid5.wqf: 95
kern.geom.raid5.wqp: 104
kern.geom.raid5.blked2: 3317729
kern.geom.raid5.blked1: 39410
kern.geom.raid5.dsk_ok: 50
kern.geom.raid5.wreq2_cnt: 19894149
kern.geom.raid5.wreq1_cnt: 3034064
kern.geom.raid5.wreq_cnt: 33885804
kern.geom.raid5.rreq_cnt: 263748
kern.geom.raid5.mhm: 32956347
kern.geom.raid5.mhh: 174868708
kern.geom.raid5.veri_w: 756
kern.geom.raid5.veri: 15261832
kern.geom.raid5.veri_nice: 100
kern.geom.raid5.veri_fac: 25
kern.geom.raid5.maxmem: 8000000
kern.geom.raid5.maxwql: 50
kern.geom.raid5.wdt: 3
kern.geom.raid5.tooc: 5
kern.geom.raid5.debug: 0

graid5 status
Name Status Components
raid5/store COMPLETE CALM ad8
ad10
ad12
ad14
da1
da2
 

bAMtan2

[H]ard|Gawd
Joined
Sep 16, 2008
Messages
1,480
heaven help me. I don't know. just please dont use 6 of those drives in raid 5.
 

RabidSmurf

n00b
Joined
Jun 30, 2009
Messages
56
Not sure if it applies with FreeNAS (never used it).

But I just resolved a very similar problem with my 2x EADS 2x EARS RAID 5 (1.5 TB drives)

I had to jumper pins 7-8 on the EARS drives which is what WD recommends for windows XP, I am running win 7 but I am thinking it's possible that the controller I am using is primitive.

Not really sure why that worked but it seemed to help a fair bit, that combined with using writeback mode has gotten the write performance into the realm of usability.
 
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Apollo686

Limp Gawd
Joined
Nov 15, 2004
Messages
227
The jumpers move the start sector from 63 to 64 which aligns the sectors on the 4k drives. This fixes the speed issues.

The difference in my situation is I am not using partitions on the individual drives so I theoretically should not have this issue. It still seems to me like this might be the problem, but I'm trying to realign the disk rather than using the jumper.

I was hoping sub.mesa would have some ideas as he has been very helpful in the past. :)
 

Apollo686

Limp Gawd
Joined
Nov 15, 2004
Messages
227
The Green drives are aligning 8 512k blocks to each 4k block, which offsets sectors starting at 63 causing the slow drive performance. By starting at 64 this is avoided, but I'm not sure how to do this with FreeBSD Raid formatted drives.

With linux I would:

fdisk - "sudo fdisk -u /dev/sda"
Delete existing partitions - "d"
Create new partitions - "n"
Tell it primary partition - "p"
Tell it partition 1 = "1"
Tell it to align at sector 64 - "64"
Change the partition type (if you want the drive as part of your mdadm raid array) - "t"
Select Linux raid autodetect fs - "fd"
Write & Quit - "w"


Does anyone know if there is a comparable way to do this with FreeNAS/FreeBSD? I am not partitioning my drives, but it's still listing the raid volumes as starting at 63.
 

Apollo686

Limp Gawd
Joined
Nov 15, 2004
Messages
227
Ok, so I destroyed the partition and recreated checking use 4k blocks. It's still listing the partition as starting at 63 with 512k blocks but I'm getting 2-3x the speed:


freenas:~# dd if=/dev/zero of=/mnt/nas/zerofile.000 bs=1m count=10000
10000+0 records in
10000+0 records out
10485760000 bytes transferred in 62.202299 secs (168,575,119 bytes/sec)

freenas:~# dd if=/mnt/nas/zerofile.000 of=/dev/null bs=1m
10000+0 records in
10000+0 records out
10485760000 bytes transferred in 57.392362 secs (182,703,058 bytes/sec)


Wondering if I can get more out of it. What are good speeds for a 6 disk array with single drive parity? I'm thinking somewhere in the 500-600mbps range.
 

Apollo686

Limp Gawd
Joined
Nov 15, 2004
Messages
227
Converted the array over to RAID-Z1 and got the following numbers. Similar write but much faster read:


freenas:~# dd if=/dev/zero of=/mnt/nas/zerofile.000 bs=1m count=10000
10000+0 records in
10000+0 records out
10485760000 bytes transferred in 58.469940 secs (179,335,912 bytes/sec)

freenas:~# dd if=/mnt/nas/zerofile.000 of=/dev/null bs=1m
10000+0 records in
10000+0 records out
10485760000 bytes transferred in 27.471856 secs (381,690,992 bytes/sec)


Not sure if this is a speed difference inherant in ZFS or if it is treating the data different and it's something I can apply to graid5.
 
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