In the spirit of the overturning of the net neutrality rules, U.S. telecom companies have begun using differentiation to throttle certain traffic on their networks according to a study by Northeastern University and University of Massachusetts. Differentiation is the practice of giving different Internet service to different applications. Researchers had consumers install the WeHe app to monitor differentiation throttling. Youtube, Netflix, and the NBC Sports App have been targeted the most for differentiation. An example of this is Verizon Communications which shaped their traffic by using differentiation to slow data from certain websites 11,100 times between January and May of 2018. This is done to manage internet traffic. "If you want high-definition video, you can pay more, the carriers say." "For example, in one recent test of the app, Netflix speeds were 1.77 megabits per second on T-Mobile, compared with the 6.62 megabits-per-second speed available to other traffic on the network at the same time." John Donovan, head of AT&T's satellite, phone and internet operations, said "unequivocally we are not selectively throttling by what property it is. We don't look at any traffic differently than any other traffic." He compared AT&T throttling to an electricity grid where some customers sign up for rolling blackouts in return for cheaper service. That's what Choffnes's research is detecting, the AT&T executive said. "We talked to him about some of his methodologies," he added.