To actually get things done in the real world, jQuery is a fairly inescapable standard- at some point, you'll have to port or wrap a library that relies on it, because it's ubiquitous. To say that it's not fundamental in 2015 is pretty bold.
Libraries can use jQuery all they want internally without a developer needing to 'know jQuery'. Of course, most libraries, at least the ones where the authors actually want people to use their stuff, don't use jQuery or at minimum don't pull in full jQuery, because jQuery is both large and largely unnecessary. Angular uses jQuery's API for DOM interactions, but by default it uses a stripped down version due to jQuery's weight.
In 2008, jQuery was fairly fundamental. In 2015, the world doesn't really need it anymore.
As for the two-bit web devs- well, the people going through boot camps and writing shit code aren't getting the jobs that are worthwhile.
That's because the boot camps focus on teaching things like jQuery and CSS (probably in a 'use bootstrap for all of your CSS' manner, too), instead of teaching a good computer science foundation. You've just pointed out the exact reason why CS programs should not be teaching jQuery and CSS...The last thing we need is for computer science programs to be MORE like those bootcamps.
I'd rather hire someone who understands that the DOM and CSSOM are trees, and the implications that has on manipulating and rendering in the browser who hasn't ever touched jQuery than someone who doesn't really understand trees but can barf out tons of jQuery spaghetti.
Major companies are moving to web frontends for their applications. I got a ton of action (and a job) from this search here: http://www.indeed.com/jobs?q=angularjs+$140,000&l=New+York , and have more consulting opportunities than I know what to do with. You can't be professionally-useful with something like AngularJS without having a good understanding of jQuery.
So do a lot of people. There's a bottomless pit of opportunities cleaning up the messes people who don't understand what's going on under the hood can create in entirely client-side single page web applications built with a framework like Angular that runs a synchronous digest loop with ditry-checking based two way data-binding. If someone is going to be writing a large scale AngularJS application, whether or not they know how to use jQuery is the least of my concerns.
Anybody who's been around web development through the shift to client-side frameworks knows the kind of trouble people got into with Backbone and Angular because they weren't paying attention to what was really going on when they were using features of those frameworks. They're great, powerful frameworks, but only if you have a good understanding of their inner mechanics and what's going on under the hood. People who skipped out on learning about algorithms and compilers in pursuit of learning jQuery and CSS are not going to have an easy time learning how their platforms actually work, and that spells trouble with a capital T.
but I'd probably have run screaming from development in general if I had been forced to sit through a class on algorithms or compilers rather than coasting through business and psych classes.
Which is probably a problem of delivery rather than potential for practical application. Too much of the post-secondary education world doesn't do a good job of encouraging students to learn. Algorithms, compilers, and computer architecture are probably the three classes that will set you apart as a web application developer, yet these are the things often cited by so-called web developers as 'useless' or 'impractical'. It really is a sad state of affairs, because these are the tools of true engineering.