# Physicists Build Circuit That Generates Clean, Limitless Power From Graphene

#### erek

##### Supreme [H]ardness
"Fluctuation-induced current from freestanding graphene

At room temperature, micron-sized sheets of freestanding graphene are in constant motion, even in the presence of an applied bias voltage. We quantify the out-of-plane movement by collecting the displacement current using a nearby small-area metal electrode and present an Ito-Langevin model for the motion coupled to a circuit containing diodes. Numerical simulations show that the system reaches thermal equilibrium and the average rates of heat and work provided by stochastic thermodynamics tend quickly to zero. However, there is power dissipated by the load resistor, and its time average is exactly equal to the power supplied by the thermal bath. The exact power formula is similar to Nyquist's noise power formula, except that the rate of change of diode resistance significantly boosts the output power, and the movement of the graphene shifts the power spectrum to lower frequencies. We have calculated the equilibrium average of the power by asymptotic and numerical methods. Excellent agreement is found between experiment and theory."

https://news.uark.edu/articles/5483...generates-clean-limitless-power-from-graphene

#### Nobu

##### Supreme [H]ardness
So throw a few banks of these in the sun and see what happens? D:

erek
like this

#### 1_rick

##### [H]ard|Gawd
So throw a few banks of these in the sun and see what happens? D:

You ever put a portable hole in a bag of holding, son? Imagine every molecule in the universe flying away from each other at the speed of light.

#### DejaWiz

##### Fully [H]
You ever put a portable hole in a bag of holding, son? Imagine every molecule in the universe flying away from each other at the speed of light.

##### [H]ard|Gawd
I was utterly shocked. Arkansas has a University system!?!?!?!?

#### GoodBoy

##### [H]ard|Gawd
Sounds like bullshit.

You lose voltage over diodes, so that's a waste right there of whatever miniscule energy they might try tapping into from atomic vibrations... which is some really small current. And yeah I read the article where they said the diodes increased the energy instead of lowering it... I'll believe it when I see someone else duplicate it and it put in some real application.

#### erek

##### Supreme [H]ardness
Sounds like bullshit.

You lose voltage over diodes, so that's a waste right there of whatever miniscule energy they might try tapping into from atomic vibrations... which is some really small current. And yeah I read the article where they said the diodes increased the energy instead of lowering it... I'll believe it when I see someone else duplicate it and it put in some real application.

"“People may think that current flowing in a resistor causes it to heat up, but the Brownian current does not. In fact, if no current was flowing, the resistor would cool down,” Thibado explained. “What we did was reroute the current in the circuit and transform it into something useful.”

The team’s next objective is to determine if the DC current can be stored in a capacitor for later use, a goal that requires miniaturizing the circuit and patterning it on a silicon wafer, or chip. If millions of these tiny circuits could be built on a 1-millimeter by 1-millimeter chip, they could serve as a low-power battery replacement."

#### Mega6

##### 2[H]4U
Brought to you by the same guys that discovered Cold Fusion, right?

#### erek

##### Supreme [H]ardness
Brought to you by the same guys that discovered Cold Fusion, right?

"Cold fusion includes the exchange and conducted materials at these humidity of the different temperatures development (under -150 ° C,-238 ° F or 123k). A concept assisted by examples of a moulding at low temp often illustrates cryogenics moulding. This process is typically used for grinding the base material q.v-unpredictable heat adsorbed oil in plant organisms. Due to its high fat content, heat is produced when power is being used by the conventional method of grinding to break a molecules to the shorter length. The heat generated makes the temperature to rise up to 950 ° C even during usual machining operation. The increased temperature seems to be responsible for about 30 percent loss of wonder and also provides low melting power. Constant activity in even the most part, due to the fat liquefied and the powdered substrate, is beyond dreams in the standard molten process. With the cryogenic grinding technique, the waste of an unknown material may be completely minimized with the fluid nitrogen or liquid carbon dioxide, which gives pre-cooling the organism and preserves the optimal temperature range by rising the heat generated while mixing. During processing the low temperature consolidates the unstable problem and retains its essence. The implementation of cryogenic engineering for species granulation has proven to be a successful technique with immutable loss of fragile substances and an increased shades of fuel and grains moulding operation."

Mega6

#### Mega6

##### 2[H]4U
"Cold fusion includes the exchange and conducted materials at these humidity of the different temperatures development (under -150 ° C,-238 ° F or 123k). A concept assisted by examples of a moulding at low temp often illustrates cryogenics moulding. This process is typically used for grinding the base material q.v-unpredictable heat adsorbed oil in plant organisms. Due to its high fat content, heat is produced when power is being used by the conventional method of grinding to break a molecules to the shorter length. The heat generated makes the temperature to rise up to 950 ° C even during usual machining operation. The increased temperature seems to be responsible for about 30 percent loss of wonder and also provides low melting power. Constant activity in even the most part, due to the fat liquefied and the powdered substrate, is beyond dreams in the standard molten process. With the cryogenic grinding technique, the waste of an unknown material may be completely minimized with the fluid nitrogen or liquid carbon dioxide, which gives pre-cooling the organism and preserves the optimal temperature range by rising the heat generated while mixing. During processing the low temperature consolidates the unstable problem and retains its essence. The implementation of cryogenic engineering for species granulation has proven to be a successful technique with immutable loss of fragile substances and an increased shades of fuel and grains moulding operation."

Mega6

"Overall, the experimental situation remains murky. In spite of the claims by cold-fusion proponents that “hundreds of successful experiments” have provided evidence of tabletop nuclear reactions, the results are not clear cut and are beset by complexity. Hundreds of erratic findings do not necessarily add up to solid proof."

https://physicsworld.com/a/whatever-happened-to-cold-fusion/

#### Wat

##### Weaksauce
Limitless as it approaches zero.

#### juanrga

##### Pro-Intel / Anti-AMD Just FYI
"Fluctuation-induced current from freestanding graphene

At room temperature, micron-sized sheets of freestanding graphene are in constant motion, even in the presence of an applied bias voltage. We quantify the out-of-plane movement by collecting the displacement current using a nearby small-area metal electrode and present an Ito-Langevin model for the motion coupled to a circuit containing diodes. Numerical simulations show that the system reaches thermal equilibrium and the average rates of heat and work provided by stochastic thermodynamics tend quickly to zero. However, there is power dissipated by the load resistor, and its time average is exactly equal to the power supplied by the thermal bath. The exact power formula is similar to Nyquist's noise power formula, except that the rate of change of diode resistance significantly boosts the output power, and the movement of the graphene shifts the power spectrum to lower frequencies. We have calculated the equilibrium average of the power by asymptotic and numerical methods. Excellent agreement is found between experiment and theory."

https://news.uark.edu/articles/5483...generates-clean-limitless-power-from-graphene

The issues with their paper starts with equation (3) which is wrong. From there, the authors confound thermal energy with 'bulk' kinetic energy, give an incorrect mesoscopic version of the first law of thermo...

#### Randall Stephens

##### Gawd
Yes, and it’s pretty good. We’re not Mississippi.

mississippi, not just a river anymore...

#### aokman

##### [H]ard|Gawd
The issues with their paper starts with equation (3) which is wrong. From there, the authors confound thermal energy with 'bulk' kinetic energy, give an incorrect mesoscopic version of the first law of thermo...

#### Verge

##### Supreme [H]ardness
I was utterly shocked. Arkansas has a University system!?!?!?!?
Yea we can't read or write, and don't have electricity. I have to sneak up to "Missourah" every day just to post on hardforum. You should travel every now and then.

#### PhaseNoise

##### 2[H]4U
This escalated quickly.

#### tangoseal

##### [H]F Junkie
You ever put a portable hole in a bag of holding, son? Imagine every molecule in the universe flying away from each other at the speed of light.
Well clusters of molecules are moving away faster than light. Planets and galaxies and clusters and stars and etc... all accelerating past light speed but not violating the limits of e=mc^2

#### Factum

##### 2[H]4U
Well clusters of molecules are moving away faster than light. Planets and galaxies and clusters and stars and etc... all accelerating past light speed but not violating the limits of e=mc^2

No.
The mass is not moving faster than the speed of light (c).
The space between the mass is expanding.
This expansion will over large distances be larger than c...but the mass is moving at sub-light speed....it is space-time itself that are expanding and it makes it APPEAR that mass is moving away at the speed of light or faster.

#### KD5ZXG

##### Gawd
The universe is the same infinite size it always ever was. You sir are shrinking faster every second, as is everything else.

Rube Goldberg surely invented a less complicated power supply, back when they called it a Thermopile.

#### juanrga

##### Pro-Intel / Anti-AMD Just FYI
No.
The mass is not moving faster than the speed of light (c).
The space between the mass is expanding.
This expansion will over large distances be larger than c...but the mass is moving at sub-light speed....it is space-time itself that are expanding and it makes it APPEAR that mass is moving away at the speed of light or faster.

Yes, it is the space which is expanding, but not any space, but only the space of non-bound regions. The space inside an atom or molecule or a whole galaxy is not expanding.

#### c3k

##### 2[H]4U
A theory about the expanding universe is that the earth, and all the nearby space, has already been swallowed by the event horizon of a black hole and, as we "fall", the rest of the universe appears to be getting further away. Fun stuff.

#### jfreund

##### [H]ard|Gawd
A theory about the expanding universe is that the earth, and all the nearby space, has already been swallowed by the event horizon of a black hole and, as we "fall", the rest of the universe appears to be getting further away. Fun stuff.
Then the black holes we have observed have also fallen into the event horizon of a black hole.

#### Jagger100

##### Supreme [H]ardness
Then the black holes we have observed have also fallen into the event horizon of a black hole.
some blackholes are bigger than others.

#### Jagger100

##### Supreme [H]ardness
Yes, it is the space which is expanding, but not any space, but only the space of non-bound regions. The space inside an atom or molecule or a whole galaxy is not expanding.
Sounds almost as if you're confusing emptiness with space. Just checking?

#### c3k

##### 2[H]4U
Then the black holes we have observed have also fallen into the event horizon of a black hole.
No. They, and the rest of the universe are beyond the event horizon. They seem to be getting further away because of relativistic effects. Their light/energy can cross into the event horizon.

Hey, I'm no expert on this...but there are several chapters on this idea in different astrophysics books. Interesting idea. Apparently, every observation we've made of the universe correlates well. As well as with the expanding universe model.

Shrug.

#### juanrga

##### Pro-Intel / Anti-AMD Just FYI
Sounds almost as if you're confusing emptiness with space. Just checking?
No

#### schmide

##### Limp Gawd
Why are we talking about fusion and space?

This is all semiconductors. Looks like they're gating and exploiting differential potentials. Similar to how a thermocouple can produce current from dissimilar conductors and heat.

I doubt this would ever scale up.

Last edited:

#### RPKYGK

##### Weaksauce
I feel like throwing around the word "build" is a bit misleading. The in article description is "developed" and the reading seems more like its more theorized and simulated.

#### juanrga

##### Pro-Intel / Anti-AMD Just FYI
Why are we talking about fusion and space?

This is all semiconductors. Looks like they're gating and exploiting differential potentials. Similar to how a thermocouple can produce current from dissimilar conductors and heat.

I doubt this would ever scale up.

The issue is not on scaling, but that it is wrong.

#### schmide

##### Limp Gawd
The issue is not on scaling, but that it is wrong.

Thats great. But if you're going to declare something wrong. Explain. Otherwise they are righter than you.

#### schmide

##### Limp Gawd

You don't mention what is wrong and why? They are still righter than you.

#### juanrga

##### Pro-Intel / Anti-AMD Just FYI
You don't mention what is wrong and why? They are still righter than you.
I have explained what is wrong and why, but my post was aimed at people who really can read.

#### schmide

##### Limp Gawd
You said a derived equation was wrong. In academia you show your work. The more you talk around not answering, the more it seems like you don't know the derivation of 3.

Even if you are 100% right, it looks dumb, wrong, and petty.

#### juanrga

##### Pro-Intel / Anti-AMD Just FYI
You said a derived equation was wrong. In academia you show your work. The more you talk around not answering, the more it seems like you don't know the derivation of 3.

Even if you are 100% right, it looks dumb, wrong, and petty.
I said something more than (3) is wrong. I know very well how that equation is derived, but I am not going to argue with someone that cannot properly read posts.

Last edited:

#### schmide

##### Limp Gawd
I said something more than (3) is wrong. I know very well how that equation is derived, but I am not going to argue with someone that cannot properly read posts.

Is what someone who can't derive 3 would say.